American Music Resource

AMR: Filename Codes

ננ  This is the heart of the American Music Resource mediagraphical system.

   All AMR filenames are notated in lower-case; each appears in that form in a UNIX directory even if imported from a DOS system which can only use capitals for filenames. Each filename is made up of three components - a prefix, a suffix, and an extension.


נננ   Extensions always convey the specific type of file that exists for a given name, and therefore, how any computer will attempt to read it. Only two filename extensions are employed for the files specifically generated for this collection on the World Wide Web.
(1) "*.txt" = the hundreds of bottommost text-files of AMR (the bibliographies and lists themselves). These contain no HTML codes. Their content is ASCII text only, presented in typescript at around 80 columns wide with a "return" or "enter" at the end of each line. The bottom line of each textfile will contain only the date on which the file was completed. If a second date appears, that indicates an update. N.B.: Since the *.txt files are at the bottom of the collection, a reader must use the browser's "back" command to exit them.
(2)"*.html" indicates that HTML formatting rules are followed explicitly in the given file. Conventionally used for topic or subject home pages and other top-level documents, text is entered without line-end returns into these files, which also usually contain lists and/or links. This format is used for everything in the collection except the text-files themselves. A "Go to the AMR Homepage" link will appear at the bottom of each.
(3)Many other file-types exist. Conventional extension names will be used for such special formats as pictures and soundfiles.


נננ   All AMR "*.txt" filenames are made up of six letters coming before the dot and extension. The first three letters will always represent a specific prefix-code for a topic or subject. For example: "bln***.*" is the code for Irving Berlin and "amu***.*" is the code for American Music in general. Each individual prefix code is associated with a given home page and the family of files linked to it. The complete list of AMR prefix-codes is found in the document AMR: Filename Prefixes.
   The next three letters of the text-file names represent their suffix-code. They designate the specific mediagraphical content of any particular file existing for a topic or subject family. For example: "***bok" contains a list of (only) books specifically written about the given topic or subject, while a file named "***dsc" would contain a discography. The filename "blndis.txt" would contain citations of theses and dissertations written about Irving Berlin. The complete list of AMR suffix-codes is found annotated, below.
   In rare cases text-files might be so large as to benefit from being split up into two or more subdivisions. In such a case, the six-letter filename is preserved and two numbers are added after it. For example, the Samuel Barber discography has been broken into three separate files: bardsc01.txt, bardsc02.txt, and bardsc03.txt. Obviously, this tactic allows for 100 possible files under the same basic name. Such an approach is also employed in this collection for bulletin board items, using filenames such as ambb0004.txt.
   The special-purpose suffix "***home.html" indicates a home page for a given topic (style or genre) or subject (an individual). Occasionally a four-letter prefix will also be encountered in the collection such as "ambb" cited above. The AMR: Home Page template provides the proper formats and file-type names with suffix-codes for any subject or topic to be housed within the collection. This annotated template may also be viewed AMR: Home Page template as a textfile to see the remarks. It may be downloaded as a guide for personal research or for making additions to AMR.
   Not only does this naming system make file searching easier, it also allows the entire collection to be accessed on several levels, such as by mediagraphical file-types.
   Please see the AMR: Stylesheet for typing rules and HTML hints. The AMR: Note to scholars/mavens, among other things, contains URLs relating to modern citation techniques and HTML syntax. The file cited on AMR's homepage primary bibliographical sources for American Music and the AMR: Note to students list basic reference sources and style manuals.

AMR: Suffix-Codes

נננ   The following master list contains all current AMR suffix-codes. This subdivision and naming system is very important to the AMR collection and continues to undergo change and development. Application criteria are discussed below for each type. The primary intention is to uphold a consistent organizational system for AMR users,  while providing the bibliographer with many "slots" and a variety of possible solutions for organizing sources and other information about any topic or subject. The "homepage template" suggests an order for the appearance of these and other files. Below, the suffixes will be presented in logical rather than alphabetical order. The suffix name itself is immediately followed by the dash and descriptive text which would follow the topic- or subject-name on the top line of the specific *.txt file. For example, the top line of "blnbib.txt" would read:

Irving Berlin - selected bibliography


Specific AMR Filetypes: - biographical sketch (see below)

...bib - selected bibliography
     a selected bibliography (normally containing mixed types of 
citations), ordered alphabetically by authors' last names. If only one 
file exists for a given subject or topic in AMR, this would be the code 
for that single, complete bibliography. If that collection of citations 
is extensive, such a single list might be divided into sub-groups 
following the logic below.

...bok - specific books (or - book)
     books or separately published monographs written specifically 
about the topic or subject. If only one book list is presented for the
entire topic or subject, cut the word "specific." - music books 
     music books of broader content than those under the "...bok" 
(specific) subdivision, such as histories, theories, and aesthetics. 
These will contain significant information about the topic or subject 
but other content as well.

...bog - general books
     citations of books of a general nature that contain significant 
information about the topic or subject; this is the code to use for 
non-music books. - textbooks.

...ref - references
     general references and collections such as dictionaries, 
encyclopedias, bibliographies, discographies, and broader books 
that contain some information about the subject/topic; or, these 
may sometimes be complete books that contain articles or essays, 
such as festschriften.

...ant - anthologies
     anthologies or collections of printed music in notation; if only 
one or a few, it/they could be included in "...ref". 

...arl - articles
     all articles written specifically about the topic or subject,
appearing in periodicals, journals, magazines or in books. This file 
would be a complete collection. Or, articles or could be divided into 
the following:

...per - scholarly articles
     articles appearing in refereed journals or periodicals.

...mag - magazine articles
...nsp - newspaper articles
     signed or unsigned popular press articles about the topic or 
subject. - interviews

...rev - reviews

...upb - unpublished papers

...obt - obituary/ies - or, could be a collection of text-files
            (see sloobt.txt)

...dis - dissertations and theses

...stf - undifferentiated stuff - (a collection of stuff which could lead to 
              specific files


...arr - arrangements

...cmp - compositions
      a list of works usually alphabetized by title.

...dsc - discography
     may be ordered by chronology or album-title.

...flm - films

...hts - hit songs
     usually alphabetized by title.

...vid - videos

...wri - writings 
     by the subject her/himself.

WRITTEN TEXT FILES - biographical sketch (see below)

...chr - chronology
     a time-line.

...out - outline

...not - note on files
     a note about the research for and content of the files about the 
given topic or subject; this should indicate the names and extents of 
completeness in the files and the date the project was done, so 
as to give the AMR user a sense of what to expect from the given

Home Pages

ללל   Each topic and subject in AMR has its own home page. It acts as the Table of Contents for all relevant information contained there and for the Internet resources linked to it. The AMR: Home Page template contains an order for the list of items; those not used are simply deleted. The home page could also include a brief descriptions of the contents of the listed files or the nature of the linked resources. This information, however, should not replace the "Biographical Sketch" for a subject or the "Note on files" (which should relate to its entire collection of files and links).

URLs: Criteria for placement, selection, and annotation on AMR home pages

ללל   (1) Normally, any Internet link associated with a given subject or topic would be placed towards the bottom of the homepage, under the proper headline category. The homepage template contains the proper formats and HTML syntax for various types. However in certain instances, a given URL might be placed within the listings of specific AMR items. In such a case, its title would be "Internet Discography" rather than just "Discography." Occasionally both the AMR file and an internet one could be listed there. (2) If there is no AMR biographical sketch for an individual and a good one can be found on the net, it should be listed at the top of the collection of files and titled "Internet Biographical Sketch." (3) In the same fashion, if AMR does not contain a given file-type and an Internet mediagraphical file is of fairly high quality, it could be cited within the upper listing of files on the homepage, again identified by the initial term "Internet."
   The proper HTML syntax for listing links and URLs follows a specific format. Here is the HTML code for the resident AMR homepage template cited above:

<A HREF="amrtempl.html">AMR: Home Page template</A>

Here is the HTML code for the URL of the UNCG Psychoacoustics Lab, the "bullet" shows that it is an item from a list of Internet resources on the "musical acoustics" topic homepage:

<LI><A HREF="">PAL</A>

This is what it looks like there:

All HTML codes are enclosed within angle brackets and are generally case-insensitive. I tend to use caps. It is important in effective citational syntax that the actual name of the Internet resource be located within the the anchor. Here is the same URL but with a less than descriptive anchor. This is not good practice:

<LI><A HREF="">site with stuff about acoustics and music</A>

For purposes of identification, description and later testing, an Internet site (or for that matter a single file) may be referenced using one of the following techniques:

<LI><A HREF="">Indiana University Music Library home page.</A>
<LI><A HREF="">Internet Music Library</A> from Indiana University.
<LI>Indiana University<A HREF=" muslib.html"> Music Library home page.</A>

This is how they would appear in a list on an HTML-formatted page:

Such citations may also appear within the flow of text, like this:

The <A HREF="">Indiana University Music Library home page</A> shows how a large <A HREF=""> Internet Music Library</A> can represent Indiana University and offer its <A HREF="">Music Library home page</A> to all Internet users.

Here's how that appears in HTML formatting:

The Indiana University Music Library home page shows how a large Internet Music Library can represent Indiana University and offer its Music Library home page to all Internet users.


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